Real Estate Law in Mobile, Alabama. General Deed Information

Purchasing property can be a very exciting time in your life, but the process can trip up a buyer or a seller who is not careful. As real estate lawyers in Mobile, Alabama we assist clients with their real estate transactions. We have over 30 years of experience helping people meet their real estate needs. This is a brief discussion of some of the general requirements regarding the conveyance of real property through deeds in the State of Alabama

In the State of Alabama, the three most common types of deeds used to convey real property are:

1) general warranty deed

2) statutory warranty deed

3) quitclaim deed

The general warranty deed gives the purchaser the most complete warranty of title a seller can provide. A statutory warranty deed provides a more narrow warranty to the purchaser. A statutory warranty deed in effect warrants only that the title to the real property has not been affected while the seller owned the real property. A quitclaim deed passes only the interest in the real property owned by the seller. A quitclaim deed does not offer the purchaser any warranty of title.

Alabama Code Section 35-4-20 provides that any instruments that convey real estate adhere to several requirements. Any deed must include both the address and the name of the attorney that prepares the deed. The deed must also reflect the grantees address. The instrument must be executed and witnessed or notarized and identify the grantee with certainty. The State and County in which the real property being conveyed is located must be stated in the upper left hand corner of the instrument and the State and County of execution should be stated above the notary acknowledgment. The instrument must be delivered to the grantee with evidence of the grantor’s present intent to divest title that is rebuttably presumed upon the physical delivery; the instrument must contain a sufficient legal description of the land being conveyed.

A conveyance of real property by an individual grantor should contain the grantor’s marital status. However, the spouse of the individual grantor only needs to sign the instrument of conveyance if the property is the Grantor’s homestead. The preparer should include a recital that the property being conveyed is not the grantor’s homestead if the grantor’s spouse is not signing the instrument of conveyance.

In Mobile there is now an additional form that the Mobile County Probate Court requires before a deed will be accepted for recordation. The Court uses this form to verify value for recording tax purposes.

For any instrument conveying real property in Alabama there is a requirement for one witness to sign the instrument. In the event that the grantor cannot write, two witnesses are required to sign the instrument. It is beneficial to have a notary acknowledgment on the instrument because it serves as a witness and makes the instrument self-proving when recorded. If the instrument is notarized, an Alabama statutory acknowledgment form should be used. Any instrument conveying real property should be recorded in the county where the real property is located and should include the address for tax notices to be sent to and the name and address of the person to whom the deed should be forwarded after recording.

The deed conveying real property is an important document and should be carefully reviewed. It is but one step in a real estate transaction. The legal description should be carefully reviewed. It is often advisable to order a current survey to verify the legal description. Deeds often retain mineral rights to the seller or an individual they have previously been transferred to. Conveyances are often made subject to restrictions of record. Examples of these restrictions are easements and subdivision restrictions (which may restrict your use of the property by prohibiting such things as storage sheds or parking a boat in the driveway). We as real estate lawyers can help you understand the restrictions and the effect of the deed you will receive when you buy a piece of real estate.

Real Estate law pre-closing inspections

As real estate lawyers in Mobile, Alabama we assist clients with their real estate transactions by providing various services throughout the transaction. One of those services is advising our clients on pre-closing inspections. Any real estate transaction can present a wide variety of inspection requirements. These can include structural inspections, soil inspections, storm water runoff studies, flood zone location, perk tests, and environmental studies to name a few. This blog entry covers some of the basic issues we help our clients deal with regarding pre-closing inspection/cooperation.

The purchase agreement needs to clearly identify the time period that the Buyer will be allowed to conduct such inspection studies. The purchase agreement should addresses liability associated with inspections. Often times indemnity and hold harmless agreements are included to cover damages or injury which might arise from testing. Reasonable access to the property, records, equipment, personal property and items to be inspected should be negotiated and agreed to by the buyer. These inspections will require a reasonable time to be completed which likewise should be included in the purchase agreement.

The sellers also have several issues with respect to some of these studies. Confidentiality agreements may need to be included in the purchase agreement so that information concerning the property is not published by third parties. Additionally, there could be liability issues related to these studies. If an environmental study is conducted which reveals certain contamination and the seller is provided a copy of the study, then it can trigger certain reporting duties under a number of environmental statutes.

The professionals involved in pre-closing inspections need to be identified and retained far in advance of closing. The professional needs to be retained with a schedule agreed upon that allows some flexibility to complete certain tasks within the due diligence period and to avoid delaying the closing.

Commercial Lease Assignment

Real estate lawyers frequently include a clause in their commercial leases dealing with the assignment or subletting of the lease. Frequently these clauses include language like “This lease may not be assigned or sublet without the written consent of the Landlord, which shall not be unreasonably withheld.”

A recent case from the Alabama Supreme Court underscores the need to carefully draft such provisions. In a case of first impression, The Pantry, Inc. v. Mosley, No. 1110759 (Ala. May 3, 2013), the Court found that a Landlord withholding of consent to assignment of a commercial lease is unreasonable as a matter of law when motivated solely by a desire to renegotiate rent terms different from those provided for in the lease.

A real estate lawyer experienced in drafting leases can provide several options such as: a prohibition against assignment or subletting, drafting language that includes a rent escalation clause, and many other variables. Of course a commercial tenant would want an unrestricted right to assignment or subletting or at least a clause not prohibiting a transfer of the lease.


The remedies for the breach of a purchase and sale agreement need to be adequately spelled out in the agreement. Frequently the forfeiture of the earnest money which is deposited is the sole remedy available for the Buyer’s breach. However, if this is not spelled out adequately, the Seller may also be able to sue for damages and specific performance for a Buyer’s breach. Likewise, the buyer may have remedies available at law if they are not adequately identified and set forth in the purchase agreement itself.

Frequently, particular transactions call for certain remedies in addition to the mere forfeiture of earnest money.

The buyer in a large transaction may wish to consider as a remedy shifting the cost of some of the pre-closing inspections and testing in the event the seller is not able to furnish marketable title or meet the requirements set forth in the purchase agreement. This can shift significant costs such as environmental studies to the buyer.

There may also be the ability to provide for alternative dispute resolution for issues which may come up prior to closing. Consider whether or not arbitration of issues is desirable and necessary.

Consideration should also be given to what happens to documents and information if the transaction fails. Confidentiality agreements, agreements to return all documents and not to retain any copies in the event a closing does not take place, can help you protect your clients interests.